Soft Skill 4: Collaboration

It is known that teams increasingly dominate solo authors in knowledge production. The days of single-inventor innovations have been replaced with team research across nearly all fields. Whether you call it cooperation, collaboration, or teamwork, an engineer’s ability to work with other people from different backgrounds is Soft Skill 4: Collaboration essential.

Soft Skill 5: Leadership

Leadership, in and of itself, is not one skill but the integration of a variety of skills. By its very nature, leading people is about successfully interacting with them and convincing them to follow. This makes leadership a key soft skill for professionals. In an engineering context, leadership incorporates Soft Skill 4: Collaboration a number of capabilities which are critical in order to function at a professional level. These capabilities include the ability to assess risk and take initiative, the willingness to make decisions in the face of uncertainty, a sense of urgency and the will to deliver on Soft Skill 4: Collaboration time in the face of obstacles, resourcefulness and flexibility, trust and loyalty in a team setting, and the ability to relate to others. Leadership skills are also important to allow engineers later in their careers to help develop and communicate vision for the future and to help shape public policy. These Soft Skill 4: Collaboration leadership capabilities are essential for the professional practice of engineering and for the protection of public health, safety and welfare.

Discussion. How would you answer the questions.

1. Prove the fact that «effective communication skills are necessary for success of engineers».

2. Why is creativity gaining recognition nowadays?

3. What is the Soft Skill 4: Collaboration core mission of every engineer?

4. What does the word «adaptability» mean?

5. Prove the fact that «the days of single – inventor innovation have been replaced with team research». Give examples.

6. What capabilities does leadership incorporate?

Text E

WHAT SKILLS ARE ENGINEERING EMPLOYERS LOOKING FOR?

With around 1in 10 university graduates embarking upon a career Soft Skill 4: Collaboration in engineering each year, it's important that you are aware of the necessary skills and qualities that engineering employers are looking for to give yourself a competitive advantage over the other candidates. One of the beauties of working in this industry is that there are a Soft Skill 4: Collaboration wide range of jobs available to suit all types of personalities and levels of expertise. Some positions demand a high level of academic achievement, some relying more on technical expertise. Incorporated engineers and engineering technicians need to have a high level of attention to detail, reasoning ability, the skills Soft Skill 4: Collaboration and knowhow to make things happen and strength of character to manage others. On the other хэнд craft workers and operators will need basic mathematical ability, resilience, patience and of course, manual skills. Regardless of the role in which you will be working, there are a common set of Soft Skill 4: Collaboration intangible skills that employers look for across all engineering disciplines:

· Effective communication skills – with an increase in the documentation and instructions that engineers use in the workplace, clear and concise communication is a requirement.

· Interpersonal skills – you need to know how to effectively work as part of a team and work with Soft Skill 4: Collaboration customers to identify needs and provide solutions.

· Technical knowledge – whatever technical expertise is vital to your job, you need to understand how to apply this to solving practical problems.

· Organizational skills – being able to prioritise tasks, manage your time effectively and resource planning are key skills for engineers.

· Enthusiasm and commitment – learning new Soft Skill 4: Collaboration skills is part of every engineer's role, so you need to be adept at assimilating a lot of new information.

More importantly, employers are looking for evidence that you take an active interest in and have an understanding of the engineering industry. Furthermore, that you have the motivation Soft Skill 4: Collaboration, drive and ambition to make an impact within their company.

Unit III

SCIENCE AND SCIENTIST

Text A

SCIENCE, ITS DEFINITION AND HISTORY

Before you read

I. Comment on the statement: «Science is a powerful engine by which the genius of the few is magnified by the talents of the many for Soft Skill 4: Collaboration the benefits of all».

II. Now read the text and answer the questions:

1) What is the origin of the word «science»?

2) Define the word «science» in a broad sense.

3) How is science defined in a narrower sense?

4) What was science associated with in the 19th century? Why?

5) Who was Soft Skill 4: Collaboration the word «scientist» coined by and when was it coined?

6) What is the role of experiment in testing of all knowledge?

7) Name two major groups of scientific fields. What do they study?

8) Give your own definition of «science».

9) What is the difference between basic and applied research? Give your own Soft Skill 4: Collaboration example of applied research in the field of science you are doing your research.

10) How could you answer the question: «What is the use of basic research?»

Science is the practice where people, usually as collectives, make controlled observations and testable predictions. This is done in the hopes of Soft Skill 4: Collaboration constantly refining their models and understanding of the world.

Science (from the Latin scientia, meaning «knowledge») is an enterprise that builds and organizes knowledge in the form of testable explanations and predictions about the world. An older and closely related meaning still in use today is that of Soft Skill 4: Collaboration Aristotle, for whom scientific knowledge was a body of reliable knowledge that can be logically and rationally explained.

Since classical antiquity science as a type of knowledge was closely linked to philosophy. In the early modern era the two words, «science» and «philosophy», were sometimes used interchangeably in the English Soft Skill 4: Collaboration language. By the 17th century, « natural philosophy» (which is today called «natural science») had begun to be considered separately from «philosophy» in general. However, «science» continued to be used in a broad sense denoting reliable knowledge about a topic, in the same way it is still used in modern Soft Skill 4: Collaboration terms such as library science or political science.

Science is in modern use, often treated as synonymous with «natural and physical science», and thus restricted to those branches of study that relate to the phenomena of the material universe and their laws, sometimes with implied exclusion of pure mathematics Soft Skill 4: Collaboration. This is now the dominant sense in ordinary use. This narrower sense of «science» developed as a part of science became a distinct enterprise of defining «laws of nature», based on early examples such as Kepler's laws, Galileo's laws, and Newton's laws of motion. In this Soft Skill 4: Collaboration period it became more common to refer to natural philosophy as «natural science». Over the course of the 19th century, the word «science» became increasingly associated with the disciplined study of the natural world including physics, chemistry, geology and biology. Several other major areas of disciplined study and knowledge exist Soft Skill 4: Collaboration today under the general rubric of «science», such as formal science and applied science.

Text B

HISTORY OF SCIENCE

While descriptions of disciplined empirical investigations of the natural world exist from times at least as early as classical antiquity (for example, by Aristotle and Pliny the Elder), and scientific methods have been Soft Skill 4: Collaboration employed since the Middle Ages (for example, by Alhazen and Roger Bacon), the dawn of modern science is generally traced back to the early modern period during what is known as the Scientific Revolution of the 16th and 17th centuries. This period was marked by a new way of Soft Skill 4: Collaboration studying the natural world, by methodical experimentation aimed at defining «laws of nature» while avoiding concerns with metaphysical concerns such as Aristotle's theory of causation.

Rapid accumulation of knowledge, which has characterized the development of science since the 17th century, had never occurred before that time. The Soft Skill 4: Collaboration new kind of scientific activity emerged only in a few countries of Western Europe, and it was restricted to that small area for about two hundred years.

This modern science developed from an older and broader enterprise. The word «science» is from Old French, and in turn from Latin scientia Soft Skill 4: Collaboration which was one of several words for «knowledge» in that language. In philosophical contexts, scientia and «science» were used to translate the Greek word epistemē, which had acquired a specific definition in Greek philosophy, especially Aristotle, as a type of reliable knowledge which is built up Soft Skill 4: Collaboration logically from strong premises, and can be communicated and taught. In contrast to modern science, Aristotle's influential emphasis was upon the «theoretical» steps of deducing universal rules from raw data, and did not treat the gathering of experience and raw data as part of science itself.

From the Middle Ages Soft Skill 4: Collaboration to the Enlightenment, science or scientia continued to be used in this broad sense, which was still common until the 20th century. «Science» therefore had the same sort of very broad meaning that philosophy had at that time. In other Latin influenced languages, including French, Spanish, Portuguese, and Italian Soft Skill 4: Collaboration, the word corresponding to science also carried this meaning.

Prior to the 18th century, the preferred term for the study of nature among English speakers was «natural philosophy», while other philosophical disciplines (e.g., logic, metaphysics, epistemology, ethics and aesthetics) were typically referred to as «moral philosophy Soft Skill 4: Collaboration». (Today, «moral philosophy» is more-or-less synonymous with «ethics».) Science only became more strongly associated with natural philosophy than other sciences gradually with the strong promotion of the importance of experimental scientific method, by people such as Francis Bacon. With Bacon, begins a more widespread and open criticism of Aristotle Soft Skill 4: Collaboration's influence which had emphasized theorizing and did not treat raw data collection as part of science itself. An opposed position became common: that what is critical to science at its best is methodical collecting of clear and useful raw data, something which is easier to do in some fields Soft Skill 4: Collaboration than others.

The word «science» in English was still however used in the 17th century to refer to the Aristotelian concept of knowledge which was secure enough to be used as a prescription for exactly how to accomplish a specific task. With respect to the transitional usage of Soft Skill 4: Collaboration the term «natural philosophy» in this period, the philosopher John Locke wrote in 1690 that «natural philosophy is not capable of being мейд a science». However, it may be that Locke was not using the word «science» in the modern sense, but suggesting that «natural philosophy» could not be deduced in Soft Skill 4: Collaboration the same way as mathematics and logic.

In many cases, science continued to stand for reliable knowledge about any topic, in the same way it is still used today in the broad sense in modern terms such as library science, political science, and computer science. In the more Soft Skill 4: Collaboration narrow sense of science, as natural philosophy became linked to an expanding set of well-defined laws (beginning with Galileo's laws, Kepler's laws, and Newton's laws for motion), it became more popular to refer to natural philosophy as natural science. Over the course of the 19th Soft Skill 4: Collaboration century, moreover, there was an increased tendency to associate science with study of the natural world (that is, the non-human world). The study of human thought and society would come to be called social science by the end of the century.

Through the 19th century, many English speakers Soft Skill 4: Collaboration were increasingly differentiating science (i.e., the natural sciences) from all other forms of knowledge in a variety of ways. The now-familiar expression «scientific method,» which refers to the part of how to make discoveries in natural philosophy, was almost unused until then, but became widespread after the 1870s Soft Skill 4: Collaboration. The word «scientist» meant to refer to a systematically working natural philosopher, (as opposed to an intuitive or empirically minded one) was coined in 1833 by William Whewell. Discussion of scientists as a special group of people who did science grew in the last half of the Soft Skill 4: Collaboration 19th century. Whatever people actually meant by these terms at first, they ultimately depicted science, in the narrow sense of the habitual use of the scientific method and the knowledge derived from it, as something deeply distinguished from all other fields of human activity.

By the 20th century, the modern notion Soft Skill 4: Collaboration of science as a special kind of knowledge about the world was essentially in place. It was used to give legitimacy to a variety of fields through such titles as «scientific» medicine and engineering. Over the 20th century, links between science and technology also grew increasingly strong.

Richard Feynman described Soft Skill 4: Collaboration science in the following way for his students: The principle of science, the definition, almost, is the following: The test of all knowledge is experiment. Experiment is the sole judge of scientific 'truth'. But what is the source of knowledge? Where do the laws that are to be Soft Skill 4: Collaboration tested come from? Experiment, itself, helps to produce these laws, in the sense that it gives us hints. But also needed is imagination to create from these hints the great generalizations — to guess at the wonderful, simple, but very strange patterns beneath them all, and then to experiment to Soft Skill 4: Collaboration check again whether we have мейд the right guess.

Basic classifications

Scientific fields are commonly divided into two major groups: natural sciences, which study natural phenomena (including biological life), and social sciences, which study human behavior and societies. These groupings are empirical sciences which means the knowledge must be based Soft Skill 4: Collaboration on observable phenomena and capable of being tested for its validity by other researchers working under the same conditions. There are also related disciplines that are grouped into interdisciplinary and applied sciences, such as engineering and medicine. Within these categories are specialized scientific fields that can include Soft Skill 4: Collaboration parts of other scientific disciplines but often possess their own terminology.

Mathematics, which is classified as a formal science, has both similarities and differences with the empirical sciences (the natural and social sciences). It is similar to empirical sciences in that it involves an objective, careful and systematic study of an Soft Skill 4: Collaboration area of knowledge; it is different because of its method of verifying its knowledge, using a priori rather than empirical methods. Formal science, which also includes statistics and logic, is vital to the empirical sciences. Major advances in formal science have often led to major advances in Soft Skill 4: Collaboration the empirical sciences. The formal sciences are essential in the formation of hypotheses, theories, and laws, both in discovering and describing how things work (natural sciences) and how people think and act (social sciences).

Scientific method

A scientific method seeks to explain the events of nature in a reproducible way, and Soft Skill 4: Collaboration to use these findings to make useful predictions. This is done partly through observation of natural phenomena, but also through experimentation that tries to simulate natural events under controlled conditions.


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